Torque Converter Operation Explained - written by
John from IPT
The torque converter is one of the least understood
components in an automatic transmission equipped vehicle.
I will attempt to explain what it does and how it does
Torque Converter Basics
The torque converter has a few different functions.
We first need to understand that there is no direct link
between the crankshaft and the transmission input shaft (except in the case
of a lock up style converter, but we'll talk about that later). This means
that the first function of the converter is to connect the crank and the
input shaft so the engine can move the vehicle, this
is accomplished through the use of a fluidic coupling effect.
The torque converter also replaces the clutch that is
required in a manual transmission, this is how an
automatic transmission vehicle can come to a stop while still being in gear
without stalling the engine.
The torque converter also acts as a torque multiplier,
or extra gear ratio, to help the car get moving from a stop. In modern day
converters this theoretical ratio is anywhere between 2:1 and 3:1.
Torque converters consist of 4 major components that we
need to concern ourselves with for the purpose of explanation.
The first component which is the driving member, is called the impeller or "pump". It is
connected directly to the inside of the converter housing and because the
converter is bolted to the flexplate, it is moving anytime that the engine
The next component is the output or driven member and is
called the turbine. The transmission's input shaft is splined to it. The
turbine is not physically connected to the to the converter housing and can
rotate completely independently of it.
The third component is the stator assembly,
its function is to redirect the flow of fluid between the impeller and the
turbine, which gives the torque multiplication effect from a standstill.
The last component is the lock up clutch. At highway
speeds this clutch can be applied and will provide a direct mechanical link
between the crankshaft and input shaft, which will result in 100% efficiency
between the engine and trans. The application of this clutch is usually
controlled by the vehicle's computer activating a solenoid in the
Here's how it all works. For the sake of simplicity, I
will use the common analogy of two fans which represent the impeller and the
turbine. Let's say that we have two fans facing each other and we turn one of
them on, the other fan will soon begin to move. Thefirstfan,which
is powered, can be thought of as the impeller that is connected to the
converter housing. The second fan- the "driven" fan can be likened
to the turbine, which has the input shaft splined to it. If you were to hold
the non-powered fan (the turbine) the powered one (the impeller) would still be able to move- this explains how you can pull to a stop
with your automatic without the engine stalling.
Now imagine a third component placed in between the two
which would serve to alter the airflow and cause the powered fan to be able
to drive the non-powered fan with a reduction of speed- but an increase of
force. This is essentially what the stator does.
At a certain point (usually around 30-40 mph), the same
speed can be reached between impeller and the turbine. The stator, which is
attached to a one way clutch, will begin to turn in conjunction with the
other components and around 90% efficiency between the crank and the input
shaft is achieved. The rpm at which this occurs under full throttle is often
referred to as "stall speed".
The remainder of the slippage between the engine and
trans can be eliminated by connecting the input shaft to the crankshaft
through the application of the lock up clutch that was mentioned before. This
will tend to lug the engine, so the computer will only command this in higher
gears and at highway speeds when there is very little engine load present.
The main function of this is to increase fuel efficiency and reduce the
amount of heat that is generated by the converter.
High Stall Converters
A high stall converter differs from a stock converter in
the sense that the rpm is raised at which the internal converter components-
the impeller, the stator and the turbine start to turn together, and hence,
stop the torque multiplication phase and begin the coupling phase.
The idea behind a higher stall converter is to allow the
engine to rev more freely up to the point where the powerband begins, and
therefore, enable it accelerate from a stop under more power.
This becomes increasingly important when an engine is
modified. Engine mods such as ported heads, bigger cams, bigger turbos (in
some cases), bigger intakes, etc. tend to raise the point where the powerband
begins. For best performance, the stall speed needs to be raised accordingly
to work optimally in conjunction with the given vehicle alterations.
In simple terms, for best performance, the stall speed
should be raised at least to the point where the torque curve is heading for it's peak. As a rule of thumb, the stall speed should be
set to match the rpm at which the engine is making at least 80% of it's peak torque for a street driven vehicle.
As you can imagine, a vehicle that can accelerate from a
stop with 80% of its peak torque will easily outperform the same vehicle that
can only launch at 50% of its available torque.
I hope this helped to explain a relatively simple device
that has a complex set of functions.
IPT Performance Transmissions